Singapore has a multi-ethnic population comprising mainly Chinese, Malay and Indian. In 2016, along with adoption of the IADPSG diagnostic criteria, our gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening approach was changed from risk-based to universal. The GDM prevalence rate increased significantly following these changes.
This study aims to report differences in prevalence of large for gestational age babies between the various ethnic groups.
This is a retrospective analysis of the biochemical and demographical data of all pregnant women who had an oral glucose tolerance test performed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Singapore General Hospital, between 1st January 2016 and 31st December 2016. Subjects with likely pre-existing diabetes mellitus are excluded.
The overall prevalence of GDM was 17%. The GDM prevalence was highest in the Indian ethnic group (27%), followed by Malay (16%) and Chinese (13%) ethnic groups. There were no significant differences in the fasting, 1 hour and 2 hour plasma glucose levels between the ethnic groups. A third of Chinese women with GDM are above the age of 35, compared to only 9.8% in Indian women, and 18.3% in Malay women. There was no significant differences between the LGA prevalence between different ethnic groups.
The ethnic composition of the general Singapore population is 74% Chinese, 13% Malay, 9% Indians and 3% others. It is of significance that in a major tertiary centre in Singapore, the number of patients diagnosed with GDM in the major ethnic groups are roughly equal, representing a higher prevalence of GDM in individuals of non-Chinese ethnicity. There was no significant differences between the LGA prevalence between different ethnic groups.